Lowering runway security threat stays a high precedence for the FAA. The FAA created the Floor Security Metric (SSM) to extra precisely determine the best dangers within the runway surroundings. Not like earlier metrics that targeted on the quantity and severity of runway incursions, the SSM incorporates all forms of related occasions that happen within the runway surroundings. The Floor Security Threat Index is the methodology used to evaluate the severity of threat of these occasions. In October 2019, the SSM grew to become the FAA’s major metric for measuring and reporting the security efficiency of the Nationwide Airspace System (NAS) within the runway surroundings.
What’s the Floor Security Threat Index?
The Floor Security Threat Index is the methodology developed by the FAA to evaluate the severity of threat of runway security occasions. It makes use of modeling to assign threat weights to the result of an occasion resembling plane harm, accidents, and fatalities. The weights are primarily based on proximity to a fatality and provides credit score for saving lives and minimal plane harm. It consists of all method of operations (business and non-commercial), plane, automobiles and pedestrians that happen within the runway surroundings. It consists of runway collision accidents, runway tour accidents, taxiway collision accidents, runway incursion incidents, runway tour incidents, and taxiway floor incidents. Operations are outlined as whole takeoffs and landings. Business operations are thought of these working below Federal Aviation Rules (FAR Components 121, 129, and 135; all different operation varieties are thought of non-commercial.
Threat-Primarily based Security Administration
Because the FAA evolves from compliance-based security assurance methodologies to Threat-Primarily based Security Administration (RBSM), we’re capable of concentrate on a systemic view of the runway surroundings that results in the identification of threat earlier than it turns into an occasion. RBSM manages aviation security systemically by way of a steady and complete software of investigative, reporting, evaluation, mitigation, measurement and suggestions endeavors by way of each dynamic and static processes. It permits predictive capabilities by way of the early recognition of threat information patterns, which drives preventive threat mitigation.
Aviation Threat Identification and Evaluation
Aviation Threat Identification and Evaluation (ARIA) is an automatic instrument that helps risk-based, data-driven decision-making, offering higher perception into potential threat within the NAS. At floor surveillance-equipped airports, the ARIA floor module will use surveillance information to determine and categorize potential threat of collision between an plane and shifting objects (i.e., one other plane, car, and so on.) inside a predetermined space on or surrounding the airport surroundings. The system will frequently assess and seize information about such encounters primarily based on vertical, lateral, and pace elements. This information will allow security consultants to make better-informed, risk-based, data-driven choices about security within the airport floor surroundings.
Collaboration is Key
The FAA convened the Runway Security Council (RSC) to essentially change the prevailing security tradition and transfer towards a systemic proactive administration technique that concerned cooperation all through the FAA and among the many completely different segments of the aviation business. By making use of the formalized and proactive strategy of the Air Site visitors Group’s (ATO) Security Administration System, the RSC is advancing the shift from a compliance-based security system to a risk-based, data-driven, built-in methods resolution to runway security.
Collaboration with the aviation group is a key element of runway security. The RSC consists of aviation stakeholders from throughout FAA Strains of Enterprise like Airports, Aviation Security, and the ATO, FAA worker labor organizations like PASS and NATCA, in addition to business representatives like plane operators, airline representatives and flight instructors.
On the nationwide stage, the ATO, in collaboration with the air visitors controllers union, has created a Fallacious Floor Touchdown Occasion Security Activity Drive. The Activity Drive supplies a assessment of floor occasions by way of an operational security lens, recommending coverage or operational adjustments as required.
On the native stage, the FAA works with airport authorities to determine and mitigate recurring floor questions of safety. Two examples of those efforts are Flying Cloud Airport in Minnesota and Ashville Regional Airport in North Carolina, the place our FAA subject material consultants proceed collaborative efforts with native authorities to remove floor occasions brought on by distinctive topographical or airport structure components.
In anticipation of elevated airport building, the FAA’s “Focus 40” airports underwent a marketing campaign to assessment and enhance their procedures to function on the floor of the airport. Updates to airport letters of settlement are underway to replicate the newest greatest practices that are being rolled out to controllers and airport car operators.
The FAA continues to work with business to speak security threat on and round airports by way of FAASTeam efforts and with workshop occasions resembling From the Flight Deck LIVE. There’s extra to come back as we maintain our concentrate on bettering floor security.
Runway Security Motion Groups
Runway Security Motion Groups (RSAT) deliver native airport stakeholders collectively no less than every year to determine dangers to floor security at that airport and develop plans to mitigate or remove these dangers. RSATs present the inspiration of the Runway Security Program at particular person airports. The RSAT conferences are the first discussion board for pinpointing and addressing airport-specific threat within the floor surroundings. The product of a RSAT assembly is a Runway Security Motion Plan during which the stakeholders doc and comply with pursue particular actions supposed to enhance floor security.
Runway Security Applied sciences and Progressions
Runway Standing Lights (RWSL)
The FAA developed RWSL expertise to extend situational consciousness for aircrews and airport car drivers, and thus function an added layer of security. A RWSL system derives visitors info from floor and strategy surveillance methods and illuminates crimson in-pavement airport lights to sign a doubtlessly unsafe state of affairs. Runway Entrance Lights are deployed at taxiway/runway crossings and illuminate whether it is unsafe to enter or cross a runway. Takeoff Maintain Lights are deployed within the runway by the departure maintain zone and illuminate crimson when there’s an plane in place for departure and the runway is occupied by one other plane or car and is unsafe for takeoff. RWSL is operational at 20 U.S. airports. Be taught extra about RWSL.
Airport Floor Detection Tools, Mannequin X (ASDE-X)
ASDE-X integrates information from quite a lot of sources, together with radars, transponder multilateration methods and Automated Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) to offer correct goal place and identification info and thus give controllers a extra dependable view of airport operations. ASDE-X supplies tower controllers a floor visitors state of affairs show with visible and audible alerting of visitors conflicts and potential collisions. ASDE-X is operational at 35 airports within the U.S. Be taught extra about Be taught extra about ASDE-X.
Airport Floor Surveillance Functionality (ASSC)
ASSC is much like ASDE-X. It improves floor surveillance and situational consciousness in every kind of climate. With ASSC air visitors controllers see plane and floor automobiles on the airport floor, and on strategy and departure paths inside a number of miles of the airport. Like ASDE-X, ASSC fuses information from a number of sources together with radars, ASSC multilateration distant models, to offer a extremely correct show for controllers with the identical visible and aural alerting capabilities. ASSC is operational at eight airports within the U.S. Be taught extra about ASSC.
ASDE-X and ASSC Taxiway Arrival Prediction (ATAP)
ATAP is an enhancement to the ASDE-X and ASSC alerting capabilities that warns air visitors controllers that an plane is aligned with a taxiway fairly that the assigned runway. ATAP is enabled in any respect ASDE-X airports and ASSC airports.
Engineered Materials Arresting System (EMAS)
EMAS expertise supplies security advantages in circumstances the place land is just not out there or it’s not doable to have the usual 1,000-foot runway overrun. A regular EMAS set up can cease an plane from overrunning the runway at roughly 80 miles per hour. An EMAS arrestor mattress may be put in to assist gradual or cease an plane that overruns the runway, even when lower than a typical RSA size is accessible. EMAS makes use of crushable materials positioned on the finish of a runway to cease an plane that overruns the runway. The tires of the plane sink into the light-weight materials and the plane is decelerated because it rolls by way of the fabric. EMAS is put in 118 runways throughout 70 airports. Be taught extra about EMAS.
Digital Flight Bag (EFB) with Shifting Map Shows
EFB, Shifting Map Shows and Plane Personal-Ship Place assist pilots decide the place their plane is on the airfield thereby lowering confusion and the chance of being within the improper place. FAA steering permits operators to make use of Business-Off-The-Shelf gear and purposes (Apps). This helps cut back the price and provides pilots a strategy to show own-ship place on the bottom. Fast and fixed advances in expertise present more economical choices than ever earlier than. For instance, some distributors now spotlight runways and airport sizzling spots with the choice of audible warnings as you strategy them. Be taught extra about EFB within the “Secure and Sound on the Floor: An EFB Method to App-roach to Bettering Floor Security” article within the March/April 2021 FAA Security Briefing Journal.
Runway Security Areas (RSA)
The RSA is an outlined floor surrounding the runway, sometimes 500-feet broad and lengthening 1,000-feet past every runway finish. It supplies a graded space within the occasion that an plane overruns, undershoots or veers off the aspect of the runway (runway tour). As a result of many runways had been constructed earlier than the 1000-foot RSA commonplace was adopted, the FAA carried out the Runway Security Space Program to make practicable enhancements to the RSA for precedence runways. Enhancements had been made to over 1000 runways at 500 airports. Though the unique RSA enchancment initiatives are full, this system continues to evolve with the intention to handle security threat and plan for future enhancements.
Runway Incursion Mitigation (RIM)
The RIM program is a nationwide initiative at airports with a historical past of runway incursions to determine airport particular threat components which may contribute to a runway incursion. These threat components could embody unclear taxiway markings, airport signage, and extra advanced points such because the runway or taxiway structure. The FAA then works with the airport sponsors to develop methods to mitigate runway incursions at these places. As of March 2023, 126 RIM places have been recognized throughout 80 airports, 91 places have been mitigated. Different options like an schooling marketing campaign or a sizzling spot designation are employed when bodily adjustments are usually not possible or greatest suited. There’s a 78-percent common discount of runway incursions at RIM places with mitigations. The RIM program constantly displays these places for reoccurrence in addition to assessing incoming information for any new RIM candidates.
Sizzling Spot Standardization
It’s now simpler for airport customers to plan the most secure doable path of motion if they will see the recent spots. In Could 2022, the FAA standardized sizzling spot symbology and verbiage on airport diagrams, bringing consistency to how areas which will current threat are displayed. Watch the Sizzling Spot Standardization video and study extra concerning the standardized symbols and what they imply.
Arrival Alert Notices
An image is value a thousand phrases, so the FAA additionally added new graphics visually depicting the strategy to airports with a historical past of misalignment threat, and language describing the misalignment threat. These notices permit pilots to see the runway configuration as they align to land. A pilot that’s extra conscious of the runway touchdown configuration is much less more likely to land on the improper runway. Watch the Arrival Alert Notices video and view Arrival Alert Notices at the moment out there for 12 airports.
Automated Closure Discover Diagrams
The FAA’s Federal NOTAM System added automated publications of Airport Building Notices. As well as, pilots now have entry to Automated Closure Discover Diagrams.
Nationwide Runway Security Plan (NRSP)
The FAA’s high precedence is sustaining security within the Nationwide Airspace System with nice emphasis positioned on lowering runway security threat. The Nationwide Runway Security Plan (NRSP) aligns the strategic priorities of the FAA’s Runway Security Group with established Security Threat Administration rules. The NRSP describes how the FAA, airport operators, and aviation business stakeholders collaborate and use data-driven, risk-based determination making to reinforce the security efficiency within the runway surroundings and the airspace.
The Regional Runway Security Plans help the NRSP by specializing in regional and airport particular efforts that contribute to the general impression of the Runway Security Program.
From the Flight Deck and the Runway Security Pilot Simulator
The FAA has produced 100 site-specific From the Flight Deck movies to teach and inform pilots and controllers of the chance related to working at particular airports across the Nationwide Airspace System. Different movies cowl security matters together with improper floor landings, advanced airfield geometry, maintain quick, improper route intersection takeoffs and extra. Further airport movies are forthcoming and deliberate for 2023.
FAA’s Runway Security Pilot Simulator video sequence is a self-guided useful resource to help flight instructors with instructing scholar pilots floor security greatest practices, earlier than they step foot into the cockpit. It permits scholar pilots to navigate on airport surfaces whereas speaking with air visitors management and following directions supplied. The situations are interactive and permit viewers to make choices primarily based on air visitors management directions.
Pilot Data on Airports Throughout the NAS
To complement From the Flight Deck movies that educate on dangers and cautions at airports nationwide, we started publishing extra info on faa.gov. This content material consists of particulars resembling airport-specific cautions, info native controllers need pilots to know, airport communications, airspace particulars, extra basic greatest practices, misplaced communications suggestions and different preflight planning sources. This supplemental internet content material is at the moment out there for 25 airports throughout the NAS, with extra content material in growth.